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Methods of Rock Reinforcement in Tunnels
Rock support for tunnels and underground cavern design is a demanding and very complex task. In principle, the problem can be approached from two directions: The first way is to define the relationship between geo-mechanical properties of the rock mass and the support methods used. This is mostly based on the utilization of statistical and empirical data gathered in similar conditions. The second way is to estimate the deformation characteristics of the rock structure, and then the related effect on supporting structures.
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Introduction to Agents of Weathering
All rocks, when exposed for sufficient length of time to the atmosphere, undergo decay from disintegration and decomposition, together referred to as weathering. Disintegration is the break down into small particles by the action of mechanical agents of weathering such as rain, frost etc, decomposition is the breakdown of mineral particles into new compounds by the action of chemical agents such as acid in air and in rain and river water.
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Activated Sludge Process (ASP) - Biological Treatment for Wastewater
Activated Sludge Process is the biological method for treatment of wastewater. It was devised by Arden and Lockett in 1914. In this process a mixture of sewage and activated sludge is agitated and aerated in an Aeration Tank. Bacteria present in the activated sludge aerobically metabolize the organic matter present in the influent. The organic matter is oxidized to CO2, H2O, NH3 etc. and a portion of it is converted into new bacterial cells.
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Earthquake Induced Processes
Surface Rupture is the actual displacement and cracking of the ground surface along a fault trace. Surface rupture is confined to a narrow zone along an active fault. Rupture may happen rapidly during an earthquake or it may not occur at all. Displacement beneath a building that exceeds 1 or 2 inches can have a catastrophic effect. Some active faults undergo imperceptibly slow movement, termed fault creep.
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Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) - History and Modern Surveying
In surveying distance measurements were always a challenge for surveyors specially when long distances were to be measured with high accuracy. In 1950 scientist tried to calculate the distance by using light beam to travel over unknown distance with measured time.
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