Steels are divided into four categories depending on the carbon percentages (C) as follows:

1. Low carbon steel C < 0.15%

2. Mild carbon steel C = 0.15 - 0.29%

3. Medium carbon steel C = 0.30 - 0.59%

4. High carbon steel C = 0.60 - 1.70%

E-value for steel: 185 GPa to 230 GPa (Average 200 GPa)

Unit Weight: 7.85 g/c.c. = 7850 kg/m^3 = 77 KN/m^3

For comparison, the unit weight of concrete is 23.6 kN/m^3

Most of the structural steel falls into the mild carbon steel or simply mild steel (MS) category. Hot rolled structural shapes may be made to conform to A36M, A529M, A572M, A588M, A709M, A709M, A913M and A992M. Sheets are manufactured according to the standards ASTM A606. A1011MSS, HSLAS and HSLAS-F. Bolts are made according to ASTM standerds A307, A325M, A449M, A40M and F1852.


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